For convenience, the basic form of the light microscope has been modified by the designers, and a series of special adjustments can be made for specific purposes. Some are ergonomic, some are for ease of use with components, some are age-specific, and others are for well-defined purposes. Next, let's talk about specialized light microscope types.
Professional light microscope type
1. Inverted microscope
For some special purposes, especially for cell culture examination, it is more practical to install the microscope upside down. In this form of microscope, the inverted microscope, light source and condenser are at the top and guide the light down through the platform.
The front element of the objective lens is set at the top, and the eyepiece is tilted upwards so that the observer can study the specimen while it is still in its watery medium. Inverted microscopes are important in biological and medical research.
2. Stereoscopic microscope
Binocular stereoscopes are a pair of matching microscopes mounted side by side with a small Angle between the optical axes. The object is imaged independently for each eye and retains the stereoscopic effect that allows recognition of the relief on the object.
The effect can be exaggerated by proper choice of the design parameters for the microscopes. For practical reasons, the magnification of such instruments is usually in the range of 5-250 times. The microscope is important in any job that requires fine-tuning tools or equipment.
For example, stereomicroscopes are commonly used in biology laboratories to dissect subjects and in operating rooms for microsurgery. Medium power stereo microscopes in electronics manufacturing, they enable technicians to monitor the bonding of leads to integrated circuits.
3. Polarizing microscope
Polarizing microscopes are traditional microscopes with additional features that allow for polarized light. The instrument's light source is equipped with a polarizing filter, or polarizer, so the light it provides is linearly polarized.
When this linearly polarized light passes through the object being examined, it may not be affected, or, if the object is birefringent, it may be split into two beams with different polarizations. A second filter, a polarizer, is mounted on the eyepiece and blocks all but one type of polarization.
The analyzer can be rotated to obtain the maximum contrast in the image, so the polarization direction of the light passing through the object can be determined. The eyepiece can also be equipped with a polarization retarder, which moves the phase of light between selected polarization directions and can be rotated to measure the amount of elliptical polarization produced by the sample.
4. Metallographic microscope
Metallographic microscopy is used to identify defects on metal surfaces, determine grain boundaries in metal alloys, and study rocks and minerals. The microscope uses vertical illumination in which a light source is inserted through a beam splitter into a microscope tube below the eyepiece. Light is shone down through the objective lens and focused on the sample through the objective lens.
The light reflected or scattered back into the objective lens then forms an image in the eyepiece. In this way, opaque objects such as metals can be examined under a microscope. Such systems also have applications in forensic medicine and diagnostic microscopy.
5. Reflection microscope
This type of microscope has the characteristic of a reflective rather than refracting objective. They are used for microscopic examination in a wide range of visible light, especially in the ULTRAVIOLET or infrared regions that traditional optical glass cannot transmit.
A reflection microscope objective usually consists of two parts: a relatively large concave primary mirror and a smaller convex secondary mirror, which lies between the primary mirror and the object and is used to transfer images from the primary mirror to the focal plane. The eyepiece. Although the objective has no chromatic aberration, it needs to be corrected for spherical aberration. By using aspheric reflectors or adding appropriate refractive lenses.
6. Phase contrast microscope
Phase contrast microscope is a Dutch scientist Zernike invented in 1935, used to observe unstained specimens microscope. Phase difference refers to the phase change of the same light passing through a medium with different refractive index.
Phase refers to the position of the wave of light at a certain time. Generally, the difference produced by the detected object (such as unstained cells) is too small to be distinguished by the naked eye, and can only be distinguished after the difference is changed into an amplitude difference (diachronal difference).
The difference is determined by the difference of the refractive index of the medium through which the light wave passes and its thickness, which is equal to the difference of the refractive index multiplied by the thickness (the difference of the optical path). Phase contrast microscope is the use of the optical path of the detected object for microscopic examination.
7. Interference microscope
Although strictly all light microscopes create images by diffraction, interference microscopes create images using the difference between an interference beam that has not been modified by a sample and other identical beams that illuminate it.
The beam splitter divides the light into two paths, one through the sample and the other around it. When two beams are combined, the interference between them reveals the structure of the sample.
8. Confocal microscope
The microscope's field of view is limited by geometric optical elements and the ability of optical elements designed to provide constant aberration correction over a large field of view. If a scanning device is used, an objective lens can be used for a series of successive small fields, and the results can be used to construct an image of a larger area. The concept has been applied in confocal scanning microscopy.
The main feature of a confocal microscope is that it detects only what is in focus, while anything out of focus appears black. This is done by focusing a light source (usually a laser) on a point and detecting the image through a pinhole. Since only light from the focal point contributes to the final image in a confocal system, it is particularly useful for elucidating the fine and three-dimensional structure of biological samples.
9. Ultraviolet microscope
Ultraviolet (UV) microscopes were developed by German scientists August Kohler and Moritz von Rohr in the early 20th century. Higher resolution can be achieved because ultraviolet light has shorter wavelengths, but the opacity of conventional glass lenses at these wavelengths requires the use of a reflection microscope or a specially made quartz lens.
Ultraviolet microscopes have become the most widely used fluorescence microscopes in which ultraviolet light causes microscope stains to fluoresce. In modern microscopes, lamps in the dark blue to near ultraviolet range are more often used for this purpose. However, interest in ultraviolet light led to the introduction of electron microscopy. It is the fact that electron beams can be used as light sources with very short wavelengths that has led to interest in ultraviolet light.
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